Averaged Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (AKDEF)


The Averaged Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (AKDEF) is a set of totally 70
pictures of averaged human facial expressions. The material was developed in 1998
by Daniel Lundqvist and Jan-Eric Litton at Karolinska Institutet, Department of
Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
The material contains an averaged female and an averaged male displaying 7
different emotional expressions. Each expression is viewed from 5 different angles.

The AKDEF material was made by using the complete KDEF material. The pictures in
KDEF was first converted from 32 bit RGB color to 8 bit greyscale. They were then
sorted into 70 different stacks (7 emotions * 5 angles * male/female), so that for
example all 70 pictures (35 individuals * 2 series) of happy females in full left profile were in one stack. Average pictures were then calculated for each stack. The material was originally developed to be used for psychological and medical