Averaged Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (AKDEF)
The Averaged Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (AKDEF) is a set of totally 70
pictures of averaged human facial expressions. The material was developed in 1998
by Daniel Lundqvist and Jan-Eric Litton at Karolinska Institutet, Department of
Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
The material contains an averaged female and an averaged male displaying 7
different emotional expressions. Each expression is viewed from 5 different angles.
The AKDEF material was made by using the complete KDEF material. The pictures in
KDEF was first converted from 32 bit RGB color to 8 bit greyscale. They were then
sorted into 70 different stacks (7 emotions * 5 angles * male/female), so that for
example all 70 pictures (35 individuals * 2 series) of happy females in full left profile were in one stack. Average pictures were then calculated for each stack. The material was originally developed to be used for psychological and medical
research purposes. More specifically material was made to be particularly suitable for perception, attention, and emotion experiments. For more info, see the document About AKDEF.pdf.
The AKDEF stimuli may be used without charge for non-commercial research purposes only. All and any (re-)distribution and publishing without the written consent of the copyright holders is forbidden. Copyright holder is Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
How to refer to AKDEF
Lundqvist, D., & Litton, J. E. (1998). The Averaged Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces - AKDEF, CD ROM from Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychology section, Karolinska Institutet, ISBN 91-630-7164-9.